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دوباره سیبی بچین حوا ، خسته ام ، بگذار از همینجا هم بیرونمان کنند - ساختمان هواپیما - شماره 1 ( گرایش بال )
 
دوباره سیبی بچین حوا ، خسته ام ، بگذار از همینجا هم بیرونمان کنند
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کد باران

در طول پرواز هواپیما به دلیل سرعت زیاد ، داشتن ارتفاع نسبت به سطح زمین ، اختلاف فشار درون و بیرون و مسایلی از این قبیل نیروهایی به هواپیما وارد می شود که تمایل به برهم زدن وضعیت پایداری پرواز را دارند . از مهمترین این نیروها میتوان به عنوان های زیر اشاره کرد : 
1- نیروی فشردگی (Compression) : نیرویی است که بدنه ی هواپیما را از جلو و عقب تمایل به فشرده کردن دارد.
2- نیروی کشش (Tension) : نیرویی است که بدنه ی هواپیما را از جلو و عقب به کشش سوق می دهد .
3- نیروی خمش (Bending) : به نیرویی اطلاق میشود که بدنه ی هواپیما ، مخصوصاً بال ها را به خم کردن وا می دارد.
4- نیروی پیچش (Twisting) : بال و بدنه ی وسیله ی پرنده تمایل به پیچیدن دارد که به این نیرو پیچش می گویند .
5- نیروی برش (Shear) : به نیرویی که بر بال و بدنه هواپیما وارد میشود و اعضای وسیله ی پرنده را تمایل به برش خوردن در می آورد ، نیروی برش گفته میشود .
لذا برای یک وسیله ی پرنده امر ضروری و واجب می باشد که از جنس و نوعی ساخته شود تا بر این 5 نیرو در طول پرواز قلبه کرده و آنها را خنثی کند و تاثیری بر سلامت و ایمنی پرواز نگذارد. به این خاطر در بدنه هواپیما از سازه هایی بنام Former و Stringer استفاده میشود . Former قطعه ای است حلقوی شکل که در جداره ی داخلی بدنه نصب میشود که بر نیروی پیچش و خمش غلبه کند . Stringer هم قطعاتی هستند همانند میلگرد که از داخل به بدنه متصل شده و نیروهای Compression و Tension و برش را تحمل میکند . 


جنس بال و بدنه هواپیما از آلیاژ آلمینیوم 2024 که مقاوت حرارتی و خوردگی بالا و قابلیت شکل پذیری و چکش خواری خوب دارد ساخته شده است . بال های هواپیما سطوح ثابتی هستند که به آنها بدنه و موتور متصل شده و تمام Loadهای پروازی را به دوش کشیده و با حرکت سریع خود در هوا نیروی Lift را پدید می آورند . 
حال این سوال بوجود می آید که بال ها چگونه می توانند نیروی Lift را تولید کنند ؟ بسیار ساده است - با وجود نیروی جلوبرنده ی موتور یا همان Thrust هواپیما به طرف جلو حرکت میکند. با حرکت رو به جلوی هواپیما ، جریان هوایی از روی بال ها عبور کرده و یک اختلاف فشاری را در آنجا بوجود می آورند. بدین گونه که ناحیه بالای بال فشار منفی گرفته و ناحیه ی زیر بال فشار مثبت پیدا میکند. این اختلاف فشار باعث ایجاد نیرویی میشود که به آن Lift میگویند. بالهای هواپیما به دلیل داشتن ایرفویلی شکل و دارا بودن فضای داخلی خالی ، طراحان را بر آن داشت که از داخل بال ها به عنوان مخزن سوخت استفاده کنند. لذا بال های هواپیما را میتوان مخازن اصلی سوخت در نظر گرفت. مخازن سوخت به سه دسته تقسیم می گردد : 
1- Built Up Tank : از صفحات آلیاژ آلمینیوم 5052 تشکیل شده که به یکدیگر جوش داده شده اند. در داخل این مخزن صفحه ی خفه کن قرار دارد که به منظور افزایش استحکام و نیز جلوگیری از موج زدن Fuel طراحی شده است. به دلیل مشکل بودن تعمیر و نگهداری و هزینه های آن ، این نوع امروزه زیاد مورد استفاده قرار نمیگیرد. 
2-Bladder Tank : این نوع باک از لاستیک مصنوعی ساخته میشود و همانند بادکنک است. بدین گونه که سوخت وارد آن شده و شروع به بزرگ شدن می کند و با تخلیه سوخت کوچک شده و خالی می گردد - ((مثل باد شدن و خالی شدن بادکنک)) . به دلیل سبکی ، این نوع بر روی هواپیماهای کوچک مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد . در چک های سنگین هواپیما این نوع مخازن باید به دقت مورد بررسی و بازبینی قرار گرفته تا از عدم نشتی و سوراخ بودن اطمینان حاصل گردد. 
3- Integral Tank : بهترین و رایج ترین نوع Tank است که در هواپیماهای بزرگ امروزی مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. بال هواپیما از دو قطعه بنام Spar که یک تیرک آهن و به بدنه وصل شده و وزن بال را تحمل میکند و Rib که صفحه هایی است که مقاومت بال ها را افزایش می دهد تشکیل شده . ما بین این دو قطعه فضای خالی وجود دارد که از این فضای خالی به عنوان مخزن سوخت استفاده می کنند که به این نوع Integral Tank می گویند .
بال هواپیما به غیر از بودن محل مناسب برای مخازن سوخت قطعات دیگری را هم بر خود ساپورت میکنند که مهم ترین آنها Flight Controlها  یا همان سطوح پروازی که شامل Aileronها و Flapها است. قسمت جلوی بال Leading Edge نام دارد. این ناحیه اولین قسمتی است که به هوا برخورد میکند، لذا ضروری است که همواره گرم نگه داشته شود تا یخ زدگی صورت نگیرد . انتهای بال Trailing Edge نام دارد ، این ناحیه آن جایی است که جریان هوای عبوری ، بال را ترک کرده و نقطه جدایش سطح و سیال آغاز میگردد.
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حرکت هواپیما در آسمان باعث ایجاد بار مغناطیسی بر روی بدنه میشود. این بار مغناطیسی تمایل حرکت به سمت نقاط تیز بدنه را دارد. نکته مهم آن است که میزان این بار نباید از یک حدی فراتر رود که در صورت محقق شدن این امر ، خطر آفرین خواهد بود. لذا برای کنترل میزان آن ، باید این بار از بدنه و بال به صورت مداوم تخلیه گردد. برای این کار از سیم هایی کوچک بنام Static Dis Charger استفاده می گردد. این سیم ها معمولاً در نوک بال که قسمت تیزی است ، قرار می گیرد و بار استاتیک را به اتمسفر انتقال می دهد. به نوک بال Tip می گویند و قسمتی که بال به بدنه متصل شده است ، Root  نام دارد. بر روی Tip بال ، چراغ هایی بنام Navigation Light  قرار دارد که بر اساس قانون سازمان جهانی هواپیمایی ، رنگ چراغ بال چپ (از دید خلبان) قرمز ، بال راست سبز و نور چراغ دم هواپیما باید سفید باشد. 

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دور زدن هواپیما بر عهده ی سطوحی بنام  Aileron است که بر روی بال و در نزدیکی Tip قرار دارند. این سطوح بوسیله ی کابل به فرمان هواپیما که در اختیار خلبان و کمک خلبان است متصل شده و امر دور زدن هواپیما را با حرکت خود محقق می کنند. حرکت این سطوح بر خلاف یکدیگر است یعنی اگر مثلاً  Aileron بال راست بالا آید ، Aileron بال چپ به سمت پایین حرکت می کند. با پایین آمدن Aileron بال به پایین حرکت میکند و با بالا رفتن Aileron بال به بالا حرکت میکند و هواپیما Turn میزند . 
عضو دیگر بالها Flapها هستند که انشاا.. در آینده به شرط حیات توضیح خواهم داد.
                                                                                                 
                                                                                           نویسنده : مسعود




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Dan.
شنبه هشتم تیر 1398 09:19 بعد از ظهر
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.

I'm having black coffee, he's creating a cappuccino. They are
handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses that fit his face, hazel eyes and the most
wonderful lips I've seen. He could be well made, with
incredible arms as well as a chest that is unique
during this sweater. We're standing in front of each other speaking about people,
what we want in the future, what we're in search of on another
person. He starts saying that he's got been rejected plenty of times.


‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ', I believe that He smiles at
me, biting his lip.

‘Oh, I can't know. Everything happens for reasons
right. But let me know, make use of reject me, could you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, make use of mind if I kissed you currently?' he was quoted saying as I receive more detailed him and kiss him.

‘The very next time don't ask, do it.' I reply.

‘I love how we think.' , he said.

While waiting, I start scrubbing my rearfoot in the leg, massaging it slowly. ‘Exactly what do you want girls? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I enjoy determined women. Someone you will never know the things they want. Someone who won't say yes just because I said yes. Someone who's unafraid of attempting a new challenge,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid when attemping new things, especially in relation to making something mroe challenging in the sack ', I intimate ‘And I like women who are direct, who cut over the chase, like you recently did. To get
honest, which is a huge turn on.'
چهارشنبه پنجم تیر 1398 07:49 قبل از ظهر
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.
I'm having black coffee, he's having a cappuccino.
He could be handsome. Brown hair slicked back, glasses that are
great for his face, hazel eyes and the most beautiful lips I've seen. They're well-built, with incredible arms as well as a chest that stands out for this sweater.

We're standing right in front of each other discussing how we live, what you want for the future, what we're searching
for on another person. He starts saying that she has been rejected many times.



‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you ', I only say He smiles
at me, biting his lip.

‘Oh, I would not know. Everything happens for good reason right.
But tell me, can you reject me, does one Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, you would not mind if I kissed you right now?' he said as I purchase closer to him and kiss him.

‘Next time don't ask, function it.' I reply.

‘I prefer the method that you think.' , he said.

In the meantime, I start scrubbing my calcaneus in her leg, massaging it slowly. ‘So what can you prefer in women? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I like determined women. Someone discussion whatever they want. A person who won't say yes because I said yes. Someone who's not afraid when you attempt new stuff,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of trying something mroe challenging, especially in terms of making something mroe challenging in the bedroom ', I intimate ‘And I really like girls that are direct, who cut over the chase, like you only did. For being
honest, what a huge turn on.'
چهارشنبه پنجم تیر 1398 02:33 قبل از ظهر
"We have to build to a different one crescendo, cheri,"
he said. "And we are going to have an ending that'll be as none before."

His smile was decadent, his eyes were filled with lust,
along with the soft skin of his hard cock against my sex was having its intended effect.

I used to be feeling a stronger arousal now as I
felt his cock slide between my sensitive lips. I felt the pinnacle of his cock push agonizingly at
the entrance of my pussy, and Needed him to thrust into me hard.
Instead he retracted and slid his hardness back as much as my clit.


I used to be aching to own him inside, and I could truthfully tell that his
must push that wonderful hard cock inside me was growing.
His moans grew to complement mine, and I knew
the opinion of my wet pussy lips around the head of his cock was getting too
much for of us.

"Allow finale begin," he stated, and he slid the end of his cock
inside me.

The two of us gasped as he held his cock there
for any moment. I contracted my pussy to tug him further inside, and he threw his head back within the sensation. Inch by excruciating
inch he pushed his cock inside me, with each time I squeezed my pussy around him.
His cock felt wonderful mainly because it filled me, but I
want to everthing inside me. I rolled aside and rested my leg against his shoulder, and the man plunged his cock
all the way in.
 
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